#1 July 30, 2018 03:48:25

The use of low-grade wood in construction

New carpenter's Union.
Production (appearance) of the problem.
More than twenty years engaged in the drilling of water wells in the North suburbs. There is a need to build an indoor courtyard (common roof, relying only on the stand) for protection of Parking of drilling equipment, open jobs for the preparation of drilling, a warm Studio as an imitation of a house for refugees, but without a roof http://azbyka.ru/forum/threads/dom-dlja-bezhencev.15616/ . Initially it was assumed the manufacture and use of asbestos and metal pipes. But suddenly began to see the forest in the Moscow suburbs and intentions have changed.
The beetle (beetle printer) destroyed a lot of forest, and by the Treasury (see picture 1) to deal with it began a continuous sawing spruce and pine American appliances. Logs exported either at the sawmill or for the manufacture of chips for OSB under Yegoryevsk. But some of the logs left to rot in the forest as in the picture 2 and also on the edges. We waited a year: take out or not, and then, collecting mushrooms in clearings picked up for indoor yard rotten and cracked podtovarnikom as the picture 3 with the hope to save money. And the foresters on the phone advised not to use the logs for construction, saying that the beetle will ruin everything. Let's see what happens.

About the technology
For your drilling needs at the time invented, debugged, produce and use klinovo buckle (connector, buckle) for fast connection of ropes. On picture 4 (without retouching) are the loop of sling rope diameter of 13 millimeters. The loop is made with a buckle for one minute kuvaldoy. Device buckle meets the requirements of the Soviet and American Standards for reliability. Partly this method of connection was tested. The Foundation of the law of Nature: if the angle of the steel wedge does not exceed 12 degrees, the frictional force of steel on steel is more elastic forces, gouging a wedge. Elsewhere, this way of using the wedge you will not find.
Modified the buckle and on its basis developed a new method of splicing raw logs. Unlike conventional carpentry joints in this pairing there is no bias power (fission) fibre logs. So you can connect and rotten, and cracked in places mates logs of any diameter. The strength of the connection is provided by the application operating in the construction only to the whole fibers.

Types of buckles
In search of the right solutions tried various ways of the device of buckles, taking care of the comfort of their manufacture and use, while maintaining reliability. The picture 5 presents laid out on a stump rejected five types of buckles. The best recognized two species:
- odnotonovye with zanemarivanja one end of the cable the conventional aluminum sleeve (picture 6),
- dolinova buckle that holds both ends of the cable clamp wedges (picture 7).
The reliability of the buckle of the first type is ensured by the correctness of its Assembly and the quality of welding. That is, the quality of the buckle can provide a simple ways, but Assembly is time consuming.
The reliability of the buckle of the second kind is provided by the precision workmanship of its parts. That is such a buckle is simpler, easy to assemble, but requires a good (accurate) snap in the manufacture of its parts.
Cable clamps tighten screw tensioners, abutting the buckle. One of the first approximations (variants) of the tensioner shown in the picture 8. The tension force
- the maximum allowable for the cable (for cable diameter 5 mm – 300 kg),
- pushes the rope into a log, squeezing out a groove across the grain, and provides the required resistance to the forces operating along the log.
Cable clamps squeeze/(press) rot, cinch cracks, and the load on the pair is distributed to the healthy fiber logs.

Three ways to mate logs
The picture 9 (without retouching) presents three ways of pairing logs using cable clamps with these buckles (wire rope diameter 5 mm):
- pair of logs with one yoke with odnolistovoe buckle,
- pair of logs two-dimensional (flat) hinge three straps with buckles declinabile,
- pair of logs is fixed by four clamps with declinabile buckles.
Details.
Picture 10 shows the connection logs a single clip with odnolistovoe buckle. Time for cable tension clamp and its zanemarivanja in the buckle with a hammer for about one minute. The best way to combine logs is temporary.
The picture 11 shows the Assembly of cable clamps with a wedge-shaped ears of two types:
- swivel eye with a possibility of rotation in the beam around the hole under the rope,
- fixed the ear.
Small wedge-shaped lugs makes it easy to score the log along the grain, and stretched the cable clamp prevents movement of abalone across the logs. The cable in the hole of the ear is protected from damage by the steel tube.
For connection logs their ears are strung on a common pin, tightened the nuts and form a two or three-dimensional construction grid structure. Convenient.

Booth and his work
The picture 12 (without retouching) stand to study the effects of humidity logs to the tension force of the cable clamp.
1 – tensioner cable clamp,
2 – bolt adjustable lever (wrench) of the preliminary provisions of the cable, convenient for torque measurement,
3 – torque wrench.
Features working stand.
Pull rope passing through the shaft hole, perpendiculares the log and twisted the lever (1) so that the line was tangent to the surface of the shaft. Then the cable clamp is tightened the tensioner, and the tension force of the cable is measured with a torque wrench. Stand with a log submerged in the water for a day, then a day drying at a temperature of about 40 degrees, and a torque wrench measures the force of the cable tension. It is shown that it is always possible to tighten the cable clamp so that in any weather tensile strength was not less than required for a reliable connection logs.

Applications
The construction of the frames (two and three-dimensional lattice structures) from waste or cheap raw materials.
In the pictures 13 and 14 show the beginning of the construction of the indoor courtyard. Temporary mounting racks.
The choice of logs for strength. The ends of the logs are installed on the supports in the center of the log of the applied load that the beam has to withstand. Measurement of the residual deformation is determined by the elasticity of logs
The Foundation of an indoor court made from stokilogrammovye bordunova stone (anchors) laid on sand cushion, almost offhandedly. Used what workers had thrown into the bushes of the city, in particular, in the Soviet times. Log stand is firmly fixed to the stone bent valves and cable clamps like the picture 15. The quality of the indoor courtyard is not affected by the mobility of heaving soils. If necessary, the weight of the anchor stones are easy to increase new stones.
The closest similar case: a pair of wire stepson with a reception in the construction of low-voltage power lines in the old days.
Other application: the unit of frames for camouflage nets from rotting logs half-ruined houses of the abandoned villages of collective farms and state farms in support of combat operations of any of the twenty commanders on Soviet territory (including Abkhazia, Transnistria, ...).
Another use:
Fast rural construction of lattice structures (scaffolding, supports, bridges, indoor courtyard, a canopy for hay, the barn, talk, palm, barn, Clooney, Riga) to different required strength from low-grade logs to a small number of workers, including, together or alone.
- Tasks of the development of abandoned and undeveloped areas of the USSR, along with a mobile workshop for repair of trucks, tractor and tank engines in the field ( http://rem-battalion.ru a message from 13.10.2015).
- Rapid deployment of production facilities under temporary fences and sheds as during the great Patriotic war of the Soviet people against the fascist invaders. Then effortlessly they can cover capital structures and remove excess with a chain saw, fasteners to use for the future.

Dignity
1. Construction material or junk or has a low wood price.
2. Log connect quickly without conventional treatment. Apparently, this is the only carpenter Union in which no bias power (splitting) of the wood fibers. In the interface when tightening the clamp, the tree becomes stronger.
3. Manufacturer of fasteners, buckles in addition to simple. The fasteners used repeatedly.
4. Maintainability lattice building structure. Errors of design and construction that reduces the margin of safety structures, eliminates additional alosinae first temporary mount (picture 10), then a constant (picture 11). In this case just change the load bearing parts.
5. For the construction of temporary lattice structures in uninhabited forest areas or in emergency (military) circumstances enough in the rig to add buckles and a thin rope.

Disadvantages
1. Poorly studied the reliability of fasteners. In particular, there is no experience with long-term use.
2. The use of such a building material and this method of construction is contrary to the applicable domestic Standards and SNiP.
3. When designing is solved by backward construction task with building materials with a large scatter of properties necessary for them to develop a lattice design. This is a task for the Builder.
4. The price for worthless stuff: testing of all building material at the construction site.

Total
The described technical solution is generated, first of all, a large quantity of wood consumed by the bark beetle in the suburbs and a large amount of timber, felled in the fight against bark beetles, but left to rot in the woods. In countries with developed industrial relations such events do not occur, so the invention significantly domestic invention.
To ensure the quality of the described method of construction need testing
- expensive certified research Institute and laboratories
- a variety of construction media experience.
Perhaps the Blockchain (essentially stable distributed set of records) will help to accumulate reliable results of many trials, to expedite and reduce the cost of learning. Therefore, their experiences to share.

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#2 July 30, 2018 04:05:33

Евгений
Registered: 2012-09-12
Posts: 47
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The use of low-grade wood in construction

Hello! Put please in the forum pictures with numbers, and it is not clear in the description what you mean.
Thank you
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#3 July 30, 2018 06:06:50

The use of low-grade wood in construction

Apparently, the organizers of the forum are allowed to put more than one picture. The rest you can see in
https://forum.derev-grad.ru/kombinirovannie-doma-f124/ispolzovanie-nizkosortnoy-drevesini-v-stroitelstve-t76606.htm l
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#4 Oct. 18, 2018 15:47:43

The use of low-grade wood in construction

Tent-the farm covers an area 6.5 m*6.5 m and is ready for testing.


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#5 Nov. 15, 2018 12:54:40

The use of low-grade wood in construction

There is an opinion.
It seems to me that if the shear load at the connection is small, then such a complex design is easy to replace, two big thick screw with a hat “turnkey” 13, screwed through the (slightly pritenenie to each other) two logs in a pre-bored hole. According to the complexity of this is much easier. But if the connection is loaded is to put a spacer, like a farm. I see that the screws + farm it's easier than cables, a wedge-tightening device for tightening.
Or something not understood?
My reasoning.
1. The objective of "Use of low-grade timber in construction" to fulfill the request and build the canopy for drilling equipment youngest synuli from podtovarnikom, left to rot near Moscow to be effective managers.
2. The purpose of the study: the most durable connection logs with unknown properties (rotting(?), the cracked(?)).
3. Features: it all carefully myself, then the construction will never end. Therefore, to measure the forces looking for a curious network around the world, carefully read them, learn and suggest its usefulness for them.
4. Imagine. I challenge You to a competition: with the greatest strength to attach a steel plate (floor hinge) to any one log is suitable for testing. I only use clamps, maybe with pads (washers without the hole) , You are just penetrating into the beam by fasteners (bolts, screws, nail plates, ...) and washers. The plate can handle the taste. In the picture one turn compresses fiber logs around the wedge, the second wedge pushes the log. You put the fasteners for fasteners, and I clamp the coils of the wound.
I guess their victory after the test.
Victory will be especially expressive for rotten logs. If You fastener will fall into an invisible mold, then everything could fall apart under its own weight. A clamp squeezed will rot and merge reshnivka fiber logs. (Clamp-combiner as in life)
A similar case: mount the handle to the broom from the picture.A clamp, not a bolt!
5. Next: the right of the power clamp, and the clamp – correct buckle (the"small spool...").
The final assumptions about the new carpenter connection.
connection of logs of any quality, most durable, provided the reliability of the buckle,
connection logs are the cheapest (processing of the logs is negligible. Eternal tensioner is not more expensive, low-powered drills of different quality),
connection logs most efficient for two pairs of hands if kuvaldoy tensioner handy and convenient.

Discussion in English you can watch https://permies.com/t/95565/grade-wood-construction or using the words "Use of low-grade wood in construction" in a search engine.

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